December 01, 2007

Testiculr Disorders - Male Reproductive System Disorders

Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. It's easy to injure your testicles because they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports.

You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It usually happens between the ages of 15 and 40.

We highlights few and common Testicular disorders


Blood in ejaculated semen (hemospermia) is relatively uncommon and rarely serious. In most cases, the cause can't be determined, and the problem goes away without treatment. However, known causes of blood in semen include inflammation, infection and blockage or injury to the prostate gland or seminal vesicles. Also, following a prostate biopsy, it is common to have blood-tinged semen for four or five subsequent ejaculations.

A doctor may be able to determine the cause of blood in semen based on:
Physical examination
Urine tests (urinalysis)
Blood tests

Treatment is directed at the underlying cause when possible. If a man notices blood in his semen, he should consult his doctor.


Yellowish-green semen may indicate a prostate infection. Semen is normally a whitish, cloudy fluid. It's usually quite thick just after ejaculation but liquefies several minutes later. There are many normal variations of semen color and consistency based on factors such as age and frequency of ejaculation.

Changes in the appearance of semen are usually temporary and not a health concern. However, sometimes these changes can be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation.

Abnormal semen color or consistency - Possible medical cause
Yellow, green or gold Prostate infection
Thick, lumpy or jelly-like Male hormone deficiency
Pink, red or dark brown Bleeding in the prostate

adapted from: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

The testes can swell for many reasons. Possible causes include cancer, testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, epididymitis, hydrocele, and varicocele. Other causes are far less common in adults.

Lymphedema causes painless swelling of the entire scrotum. Lymphedema results most often from blockage of genital blood or lymph fluid returning to the body. Cirrhosis and heart failure are common causes. Lymphedema can also result from compression of the abdominal or pelvic veins or lymph glands (for example, by a tumor). A doctor makes a diagnosis of lymphedema based on findings from a physical examination. Treating the underlying cause usually gives better results than surgery.

Mumps, a viral infection, usually affects children. If an adult contracts mumps, the testes can become painful and swollen and may sometimes shrink and stop working (atrophy). Mumps can permanently damage the ability of the testes to produce sperm but does not usually cause complete infertility unless it affects both testes.

A spermatocele is a collection of sperm in a sac that develops next to the epididymis. Most are painless. While most spermatoceles need no treatment, one that becomes large or bothersome can be removed surgically


Growths on the penis are sometimes caused by infections. One example is syphilis, which may cause flat pink or gray growths (condylomata lata). Also, certain viral infections can produce one or more small, firm, raised skin growths (genital warts, or condylomata acuminata) or small, firm, dimpled growths (molluscum contagiosum).

Skin cancer can occur anywhere on the penis, most commonly at the glans penis, especially its base. Cancers affecting the skin of the penis, uncommon in the United States, are even rarer in men who have been circumcised. The cause of cancer of the penis may be long-standing irritation, usually under the foreskin. Squamous cell carcinoma occurs most commonly; less common cancers include Bowen's disease and Paget's disease. Cancer usually first appears as a painless, reddened area with sores that do not heal for weeks.

To diagnose cancer of the penis, a doctor removes a tissue sample for examination under a microscope (biopsy). To treat the cancer, a surgeon removes it and some normal surrounding tissue, sparing as much of the penis as possible. If a lot of tissue is removed, the penis can often be rebuilt surgically.

Most men with small cancers that have not spread survive for many years after treatment. Most men with cancer that has spread die within 5 years
Adapted from: Merck & Co. inc